What is Colorectal cancer?1
- Colon cancer is a malignant tumor in the colon and rectum. Colorectal cancer is a cancer that starts in the colon or the rectum. These cancers can also be named colon cancer or rectal cancer, depending on where they start. Colon cancer and rectal cancer are often grouped together because they have many features in common.
Prediction of prognosis in colorectal cancer is vital for the choice of therapeutic options. Factors such as tumor size, histological type and subtype, presence of signet ring morphology and the degree of differentiation as well as the presence of lymphovascular invasion and lymph node involvement are well known factors that influence outcome.
|Stage Ⅰ||Stage Ⅱ||Stage Ⅲ||Stage Ⅳ|
|Stage (chemotherapy)||Cancer chemotherapy is not performed because the possibility of recurrence is low.||Though controversial, should the risk of recurrence is high, you may be asked to take chemotherapy. Please make decision after fully discussing with your doctor.||Secondary chemotherapy to lower recurrence rate is the standard treatment.||Cancer Treatment is more effective than symptomatic treatment. because it improves life extension and quality of life.|
|Survival Rates by stage||The 5-year relative survival rate for people with stage I colon cancer is about 92%.||For people with stage IIA colon cancer, the 5-year relative survival rate is about 87%. For stage IIB cancer, the survival rate is about 63%.||The 5-year relative survival rate for stage IIIA colon cancers is about 89%. For stage IIIB cancers the survival rate is about 69%, and for stage IIIC cancers the survival rate is about 53%.||Colon cancers that have spread to other parts of the body are often harder to treat and tend to have a poorer outlook. Metastatic, or stage IV colon cancers, have a 5-year relative survival rate of about 11%.|
Colorectal Canr Anticancer Drug Adverse effects
Common adverse effects are Aleukaemia, Thrombocytopenia, Alopecia, Rash, Nausea, Vomiting and Fatigue.
|Types of anticancer drugs||Adverse effects|
|5-FU||Nausea, Vomiting, Stomatitis, Diarrhea, Anorexia, Dermatitis, Rash, Alopecia|
|Caffeicitabine||Nausea, Vomiting, Stomatitis, Diarrhea, Anorexia, Dermatitis, Rash, Alopecia and Hand-Foot Syndrome|
|Oxaliplatin||Nausea, Vomiting, Diarrhea, Acroparesthesia|
|Irinotecan||Diarrhea, Nausea, Vomiting, Abdominal Pain, Alopecia|
|Cetuximab||Nausea, Diarrhea, Anorexia, Fatigue, Mucositis, Rash, Hypomagnesemia|
|Bevacizumab||Hypertension, Proteinuria, Hemorrhage, Perforation, Delayed wound healing|
Adverse effects of Radiation Therapy
Recurrence rate of colorectal cancer3-5
metastasis rates of colorectal cancer6-8
Patent and technology
The intestinal epithelium is the most rapidly self-renewing tissue of the mammalian body with a turnover time of 4-5 days.
GUCY2C binds the endogenous ligands guanylin, catalyzing the conversion of GTP to cGMP, and is required to maintain intestinal homeostasis. Thus, signaling by GCC and its downstream effector, cyclic GMP (cGMP) has emerged as a principal regulator of proliferation in human colon cancer cells. In that context, differentiated enterocytes in villi exhibit higher guanylin expression and ligand-dependent cGMP accumulation compared to proliferating progenitor cells in crypts
Dysregulation of GCC, Reflecting loss of endogenous ligands, might contribute to tumorigenesis by potentiating hyperproliferation.
Together with the uniform over-expression of GCC in human tumors, and the standard of care in which hormone deficiencies are treated by replacement therapy, the role of GCC as a tumor suppressor underscores the potential of oral administration of GCC ligands for targeted prevention and therapy of colorectal cancer.
Completion and implementation of Clinical 2-phase protocol (planning of clinical Trials in 5 hospitals including Harvard)
Data analysis of Phase 2 data analysis and presentation
Determination of Phase Ⅲ clinical trials conduct
Demonstrate the safety of vaccine.
Destroy GCC-expressing metastatic tumors and boost levels of immunity through vaccination.
Demonstrate that the ability of GCC-specific CD4+ T cell tolerance to contribute vaccine-induced antitumor immunity in mice.
The study reported that vaccines prevent development of metastasis and extended the median survival of mice.
These results suggested not only the utility of GCC-specific immunotherapy for colorectal mucosal tissues, but the potential for malignancies of other mucosae such as stomach, esophagus, and genital cancer.
The most commonly lost gene products in colorectal carcinogenesis include guanylin and uroguanylin, the endogenous ligands for guanylyl cyclase C (GCC, GUCY2C), the intestinal receptor for diarrheagenic bacterial enterotoxins. GCC is a protein whose expression normally is restricted to intestinal epithelial cells, but universally over-expressed by metastatic colorectal tumors.
The study reported that Guanylyl Cyclase C mRNA have predicted to more accurately detect recurrence and metastatic patients with colorectal cancer.